The health transition from the mid-nineteenth century to the present is well known, but much of the focus has been on improvements in mortality and increases in adult stature. Recent research has begun to highlight the importance of changes in child growth since the mid-nineteenth century as well (Gao and Schneider 2020). This session brings together researchers studying changes in child growth in the twentieth century bringing together methodological innovations such as estimating child stunting rates (the percentage of children who are too short for their age) with data for new parts of the world.